Your Guide to Italian Grammar

Can you learn Italian by ear, using Duolingo, watching TV or listening to music... without ever opening a grammar handbook? Sorry, we don't think so. We believe that adults learners need to know the how's and why's. Italian is a heavily inflected language: nouns, articles and adjectives have a grammatical gender, verbs are conjugated in many moods and tenses, and parts of speech must agree with each other. It would take a long time to figure out all the rules by trial and error. A clear explanation and a few exercises will allow you to understand each concept more quickly and will make life much easier for you!


  1. Basic Topics: Nouns, Articles, Adjectives, Pronouns & Prepositions
  2. Verb Conjugation: Verb Moods & Tenses
  3. Master the Most Common Irregular Verbs
  4. Let's Practise! Esercizi
  5. Intermediate & Advanced Topics

How to study

  • Set your learning goals and a learning schedule. If you have a busy life, just try and fit 10 or 15 minutes of Italian in your daily routine.
  • Study each lesson thoroughly. Don’t rush into the next lesson, watch the videos multiple times, and review new grammar topics before moving on. Feel free to go back to previous lessons: watch, learn, consolidate.
  • Put into practice! Passive learning is not enough. Most of our lessons include exercises to help you understand and remember what you just learned.
  • Delve deeper. You can download the transcript of each video to review and repeat from just $1 a month. Upper-tier patrons get a special PDF with additional, more difficult exercises every week. Older videos have a free transcript.

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Basic Topics

Learn Italian Grammar

Nouns, articles, adjectives, pronouns, and prepositions: master the parts of speech in Italian. We begin with the gender of nouns - in Italian all nouns are either masculine or feminine! - and we expand on the concept of agreement between nouns, articles and adjectives. We also tackle prepositions and pronouns, tricky topics that require special attention. Take your time and don't skip the exercises! Practice makes progress.

The Building Blocks of Italian - How to form a sentence A1 Free Transcript Special PDF
The Gender of Nouns - Masculine or feminine? A1 Free Transcript Special PDF
Articolo sì o articolo no? - When to use definite articles in Italian A1 Transcript Special PDF
Esercizi con gli articoli - Let's practise Italian definite articles A1 Transcript Special PDF
Italian Prepositions 1 - Le preposizioni semplici A1 Free Transcript Special PDF
Italian Prepositions 2 - Le preposizioni articolate A1 Free Transcript Special PDF
Esercizi con le preposizioni - Let's practise Italian prepositions A1 Transcript Special PDF
Italian Adjectives - Noun-adjective agreement A1 Free Transcript Special PDF
Interrogative Sentences - How to ask questions in Italian A1 Free Transcript  
I pronomi oggetto diretto 1 - Unstressed Direct Object Pronouns A2 Transcript Special PDF
I pronomi oggetto diretto 2 - Stressed Direct Object Pronouns A2 Transcript Special PDF
Esercizi con i pronomi - Let's Practise Italian Pronouns and the Particles CI & NE A1-B1 Transcript Special PDF
I pronomi oggetto indiretto - Indirect Object Pronouns A2 Transcript Special PDF

Verb Conjugation - Verb Moods & Tenses

Learn Italian Verbs

Italian verbs convey a lot of information on when the action happens and on the subject that performs it; sometimes a different vowel at the end is enough to change mood, tense and person! If your first language has little or no inflection, like English or Chinese, you will have to understand the concept of verb conjugation first; then try to memorise conjugations by repeating whole sentences. Most of the following lessons include plenty of exercises to help you make sense of the various moods and tenses.

How to Conjugate Italian Verbs - Le coniugazioni verbali A1 Transcript Special PDF
Let's Practise Italian Verbs! - Esercizi sui verbi A1 Transcript Special PDF
Common Uses of ESSERE and AVERE in Italian A1 Transcript Special PDF
I verbi riflessivi - Reflexive verbs A1 Transcript Special PDF
L'imperfetto - Repetitive & habitual actions in the past A1 Transcript Special PDF
Il passato prossimo 1 - How to form the most common Italian past tense A1 Transcript Special PDF
Il passato prossimo 2 - Essere o avere? How to choose the correct helping verb A1 Transcript Special PDF
Il passato prossimo 3 - How to use the most common Italian past tense A1 Transcript Special PDF
Imperfetto o passato prossimo? - Which past tense should you use in Italian? A2 Free Transcript Special PDF
Il passato remoto - The literary past tense A2 Transcript Special PDF
Il trapassato prossimo - A special kind of past tense A2 Transcript Special PDF
Il futuro semplice - How to talk about the future in Italian A2 Transcript Special PDF
Il futuro anteriore - How to talk about the past... in the future B1 Transcript Special PDF
Il condizionale presente - Wishes, polite requests, advice, suggestions A2 Transcript Special PDF
Il gerundio - The Italian present and past continuous B1 Transcript Special PDF
Il congiuntivo 1 - The Subjunctive Mood in Independent Clauses B1 Free Transcript Special PDF
Il congiuntivo 2 - The Subjunctive Mood in Dependent Clauses B1 Free Transcript Special PDF
Il congiuntivo 3 - The Subjunctive Mood: How to Use it with Conjunctions B2 Transcript Special PDF
Il congiuntivo passato - Quick & Easy Lesson on the Past Subjunctive B2 Transcript Special PDF

Master the Most Common Irregular Verbs

Learn Italian Verbs

Like in English, many of the most common Italian verbs are irregular. Once you know the basics of verb conjugation, watch this series on Italian verbs, where we provide tips to remember irregular conjugations and we explain uses, synonyms and idiomatic expressions with plenty of examples.

When to use ANDARE, and when to use VENIRE? What is the difference between SAPERE and CONOSCERE? Why is coscienza spelled with an "i" and conoscenza without? Tra il DIRE e il FARE c'è di mezzo il mare, ed è tutto un ANDIRIVIENI! Let's learn all of this together.

ANDARE - How to conjugate & use the verb to go A1 Free Transcript  
VENIRE - How to conjugate & use the verb to come A1 Free Transcript Special PDF
FARE - How to conjugate & use the verb to do A1 Free Transcript Special PDF
DIRE - How to conjugate & use the verb to say A1 Free Transcript Special PDF
SAPERE - How to conjugate & use the verb to know A1 Free Transcript Special PDF
VOLERE - How to conjugate & use the verb to want A1 Free Transcript Special PDF

Let's Practise! Esercizi!

Italian Grammar Exercises

The following videos include a mix of exercises on various topics, and will help you avoid the most common mistakes. You will also find exercises in most of our grammar lessons, and there are practice videos linked to some of the most important topics listed above. Practice is key! Forza!

Esercizi di grammatica di base - A mix of basic grammar exercises A1-A2   Special PDF
Giusto o sbagliato? - Common Mistakes in Italian A1-A2 Transcript Special PDF
Four Common Mistakes in Italian - More mistakes to fix A1-A2 Transcript Special PDF
Grammar Mix for the Holidays A1-B2 Transcript Special PDF

More Intermediate Grammar Topics

Intermediate Italian Grammar

Ready to take your Italian to the next level? Qui troverai pane per i tuoi denti. The particles CI and NE are considered a thorny topic, but they are widely used in everyday Italian and should be learned sooner rather than later. Then, if you are already familiar with the subjunctive and the conditional moods, you can tackle conditional sentences - il periodo ipotetico.

The Particles CI & NE - Italian Clitics B1 Free Transcript Special PDF
The Relative Pronouns CUI & IL QUALE B1 Transcript Special PDF
La forma passiva - The Passive Voice B1 Transcript Special PDF
Il periodo ipotetico della realtà - Conditional Sentences 1 B2 Transcript Special PDF
Il periodo ipotetico della possibilità - Conditional Sentences 2 B2 Transcript Special PDF
Il periodo ipotetico dell'irrealtà - Conditional Sentences 3 B2 Transcript Special PDF